Question
(a) When water freezes, its volume increases by 9.05% (that is, $\dfrac{\Delta V}{V_o} = 9.05=\times 10^{-2}$). What force per unit area is water capable of exerting on a container when it freezes? (It is acceptable to use the bulk modulus of water in this problem.) (b) Is it surprising that such forces can fracture engine blocks, boulders, and the like?
1. $2.0\times 10^{8}\textrm{ N/m}^2$
2. The pressure of freezing water is greater than the highest pressure in the ocean, at the bottom of the Mariana Trench, by a factor of 1.8. It is no surprise that freezing water can crack strong materials.
Solution Video